McMaster kinesiologists who examined the effectiveness of old-school physical training have found that simple bodyweight exercises, when performed vigorously over short periods, improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
The findings, published recently in the International Journal of Exercise Science, are a reminder of the health benefits of practical, time-efficient and low-tech conditioning.
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Bodyweight-style interval training is popular, but to this point there had been only limited research into its potential for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, which researchers say is an important measure of health and disease risk.
The new study was modelled on classic principles of physical education and a fitness plan known as “5BX” or Five Basic Exercises, originally developed in the 1950s by Dr. Bill Orban for Royal Canadian Air Force members stationed in remote outposts.
The plan is not dependent on any specialized facilities or equipment and can be scaled to suit an individual’s fitness level.
“A cruel twist of the pandemic is that, at the height of the lockdown, the public health response has largely removed one barrier to fitness but worsened another,” says lead author and kinesiology professor Martin Gibala, who published a study in 2019 showing the health benefits of brief bouts of stair climbing throughout the day.
“Many people have time to spare, but closures and physical distancing provisions have limited access to facilities and equipment.”
Gym closures in some places will likely exacerbate the struggle that a lot of people seem to face in keeping fit, Gibala says.
The exercises included simple calisthenics such as running in place, modified burpees and squat jumps. Participants performed the activities at a self-selected “challenging” pace, interspersed with light active recovery periods.
The 11-minute routine, which included a brief warm-up, does not demand extraordinarily high levels of motivation or “all out” efforts, which are common to many intense interval training approaches.
After six weeks of training, three times per week, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher than in a control group that did not exercise.
“Our findings have relevance for individuals seeking practical, time-efficient approaches to at least maintain their fitness,” Gibala says.
“The obvious advantage is that a workout of this nature can be done practically anywhere, in a time-efficient manner and without the need for specialized equipment.”
Simple Bodyweight Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Minimal Time Commitment: A Contemporary Application of the 5BX Approach, Archila, Linda R; Bostad, William; Joyner, Michael J; and Gibala, Martin J. (2021) International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 14 : Iss. 3, Pages 93 – 100. PDF
Do stair climbing exercise “snacks” improve cardiorespiratory fitness? Jenkins EM, Nairn LN, Skelly LE, Little JP, Gibala MJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019 Jun;44(6):681-684. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0675. Epub 2019 Jan 16. Full text
Sprint exercise snacks: a novel approach to increase aerobic fitness, Little JP, Langley J, Lee M, Myette-Côté E, Jackson G, Durrer C, Gibala MJ, Jung ME. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019 May;119(5):1203-1212. doi: 10.1007/s00421-019-04110-z. Epub 2019 Mar 7.
Brief Intense Stair Climbing Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Allison MK, Baglole JH, Martin BJ, Macinnis MJ, Gurd BJ, Gibala MJ. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Feb;49(2):298-307. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001188. Erratum in: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Mar;49(3):626.
Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment, Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 26;11(4):e0154075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154075. Full text
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